||Gladiatorial Combat of the Intellect Contest||<for the motion> - Page 4

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Posted: 5 years ago
^^Created the final draft!
Posted: 5 years ago
Please can someone center align it!
Posted: 5 years ago
Okay, i'll centre align it. Smile Just give me a minute.
By the way, you haven't included the laws of robotics i posted. That would be like a winning argument in my opinion.
Posted: 5 years ago

Artificial Intelligence


"You never change things by fighting the existing reality.

To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete."

R. Buckminster Fuller


Intelligence can be defined as the ability to perceive information and store it as knowledge to be applied in an environment or context.

Over the course of time human intelligence has given  us various inventions to help mankind and make human life easier,including computers and thus arose a new form of intelligence which came to known as artificial intelligence or AI,which can be defined as intelligence possessed by machines which opens new horizons for mankind.


"Everything we love about civilization is a product of intelligence, so amplifying our human intelligence with artificial intelligence has the potential of helping civilization flourish like never before - as long as we manage to keep the technology beneficial."


Max Tegmark, President of the Future of Life Institute


Artificial intelligence and its origin

Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer sciences concerned with making computers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


While thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, the idea of actually trying to build a machine to perform useful reasoning may have begun with Ramon Llull (c. 1300 CE).


The field of AI research was founded at a conference at Dartmouth College in 1956. The attendees, including John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell, Arthur Samuel and Herbert Simon, became the leaders of AI research. They and their students wrote programs that were astonishing to most people: computers were winning at checkers, solving word problems in algebra, proving logical theorems and speaking English.

Artificial intelligence has many advantages compared to disadvantages.Some of the advantages are


  • With artificial intelligence, the chances of error are almost nil and greater precision and accuracy is achieved.
  • Intelligent robots can be programmed  to dig for fuels. They can be used for mining purposes. The intelligence of machines can be harnessed for exploring the depths of oceans.They can reach where it is impossible for humans to.
  • Robots can do certain laborious tasks. Painstaking activities, which have long been carried out by humans can be taken over by the robots.
  • Lacking the emotional side, robots can think logically and take the right decisions. Sentiments are associated with moods that affect human efficiency. This is not the case with machines with artificial intelligence.
  • Artificial intelligence can be utilized in carrying out repetitive and time-consuming tasks efficiently.
  • The greatest advantage of artificial intelligence is that machines do not require sleep or breaks, and are able to function without stopping. They can continuously perform the same task without getting bored or tired. When employed to carry out dangerous tasks, the risk to human health and safety is reduced.

The goal

The overall research goal of AI is to create technology that allows computers and machines to function in an intelligent manner. The general problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into sub-problems. These consist of particular traits or capabilities that researchers expect an intelligent system to display.

Capabilities currently classified as AI include :

1)successfully understanding human speech,

2)competing at a high level in strategic game systems (such as Chess and Go), 3)self-driving cars,

4)intelligent routing in Content Delivery Networks,and

5) interpreting complex data.


Can AI outperform human ?

Artificial intelligence today is properly known as narrow AI (or weak AI), in that it is designed to perform a narrow task (e.g. only facial recognition or only internet searches or only driving a car). However, the long-term goal of many researchers is to create general AI (AGI or strong AI). While narrow AI may outperform humans at whatever its specific task is, like playing chess or solving equations, AGI would outperform humans at nearly every cognitive task.


The present & Applications.

2015 was a big year. Artificial intelligence is moving into the commercial world. AI has been worked on for many years, largely in research. Various aspects of commercial use of AI, otherwise known as machine learning, is used for advertising and web searches and things like that. It wasn't until the last few years that AI could do things that people can't do. Several milestones were achieved in 2015 in particular that made it possible for us to use it in all kinds of areas.

There have been several recent advancements.

Yes, in an area of AI called "deep learning." The system basically learns by itself using a lot of data and computation. If you keep showing it pictures of an orange, it eventually figures out what an orange is"or a Chihuahua versus a Labrador versus a small pony. Amazing things happened in 2015: Microsoft (MSFT, -0.09%) and Google (GOOG, +0.51%) beat the best human at image recognition for the first time. Baidu beat humans in recognizing two languages. Microsoft and the China University of Technology and Science taught a computer network how to take an IQ test, and it scored better than a college postgraduate.

What are we seeing at the commercial level?

Google, Microsoft, and Facebook (FB, -0.07%) are using AI, whether it's the voice recognition on your phone or the items displayed in your news feed. We're using the same technology for autonomous cars because we can now achieve superhuman levels of perception. We can now recognize things better than a human. Of course there are all sorts of matters with regard to the dynamic range of our eyes"it's quite good, far superior than a camera. But if we add enough sensors like Lidar and radar and high-dynamic range cameras, in combination we will be able to surpass human perception.

Source:http://fortune.com/2016/03/22/artificial-intelligence-nvidia/

Examples

DeepBlue: A computer by IBM that was majorly designed as a chess playing one. It defeated the then world champion, Garry Kasparov in 1996 and also in 1997. In the former year, it played a 6-game match with him and could win only one (the first match) while Garry won 3 matches and 2 were draws. So it was heavily upgraded and in the following year, it won game 6, defeating Garry in the match.
Watson: The question-answering computer that won the popular American Quiz show, Jeopardy. Further highlighting the win is the fact that it enjoyed a clear win against the former winners of the game, Bard Retter and Jen Kennings in 2011. It had access to approximately 4 terabytes of data including all of Wikipedia's but it did not have connection to the internet during the game. Indisputably outperforming humans in the game, this artificially intelligent machine is a proof of the logical capabilities and the power 'Cognitive computing', a term closely knit with 'Machine Learning'.
Another fascinating thing about this computer is its capability to understand and interpret natural language, the language that we use rather than having to use computer language. This advantage has lead to IBM announcing a Watson API that we can include in our software based applications for 'intelligent' solution to the problems.

We might not be aware of it but we use artificial intelligence in our day to day life.It has so much influence on our daily life and will likely grow in the coming years.Few applications of artificial intelligence are: 

  • Virtual personal assistants: Siri, Google Now, and Cortana are all intelligent digital personal assistants on various platforms (iOS, Android, and Windows Mobile). In short, they help find useful information when you ask for it.

  • Video games:One of the instances of AI that most people are probably familiar with, video game AI has been used for a very long time.Games like Far Cry and Call of Duty also make significant use of AI, with enemies that can analyze their environments to find objects or actions that might be beneficial to their survival; they'll take cover, investigate sounds, use flanking maneuvers, and communicate with other AIs to increase their chances of victory. 
  • Smart cars:Self-driving cars are moving closer and closer to reality.The idea is that, eventually, the car will be able to "look" at the road ahead of it and make decisions based on what it sees, helping it learn in the process.
  • Fraud detection:Have you ever gotten an email or a letter asking you if you made a specific purchase on your credit card? Many banks send these types of communications if they think there's a chance that fraud may have been committed on your account, and want to make sure that you approve the purchase before sending money over to another company. Artificial intelligence is often the technology deployed to monitor for this type of fraud.
  • Customer support:Many websites now offer customers the opportunity to chat with a customer support representative while they're browsing"but not every site actually has a live person on the other end of the line. In many cases, you're talking to a rudimentary AI. Many of these chat support bots amount to little more than automated responders, but some of them are actually able to extract knowledge from the website and present it to customers when they ask for it.
  • Security:A single person monitoring a number of video cameras isn't a very secure system; people get bored easily, and keeping track of multiple monitors can be difficult even in the best of circumstances. Which is why training computers to monitor those cameras makes a great deal of sense.

The Laws of Robotics

The three laws of Robotics or the Asimov's Laws were put forth by science fiction author Isaac Asimov. They were first introduced in his 1942 short story "Runaround". The Three Laws, quoted as being from the "Handbook of Robotics, 56th Edition, 2058 A.D.", are:
  1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
  2. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
  3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Laws


The original laws have been altered and elaborated on by Asimov and other authors. Asimov himself made slight modifications to the first three in various books and short stories to further develop how robots would interact with humans and each other. In later fiction where robots had taken responsibility for government of whole planets and human civilizations, Asimov also added a fourth, or zeroth law, to precede the others:

0. A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.sense.

Argument:Benefits of Artificial Intelligence.


::Artificial intelligence in economy::

Have you ever imagined ?you wake up in the morning, as an automated hand gives you toothbrush, then a robotic Voice greets you good morning ?

Never imagined ?

It's okay don't be upset, you must have imagined a an automated gas pump.

Here is a small example of how AI would open up a new field for employment, so folks , don't be scared just relax.

Yeah talking about the same automated gas pump killed a lot of jobs over the years, but its biography might give you hope that the coming wave of automation driven by artificial intelligence (AI) will turn out better for almost all of us than a lot of people seem to think.


The first crude version of an automated gas-delivering robot appeared in 1964 at a station in Westminster, Colorado. Short Stop convenience store owner John Roscoe bought an electric box that let a clerk inside activate any of the pumps outside. Self-serve pumps didn't catch on until the 1970s, when pump-makers added automation that let customers pay at the pump, and over the next 30 years, stations across the nation installed these task-specific robots and fired attendants. By the 2000s, the gas attendant job had all but disappeared. (Two states, New Jersey and Oregon, protect full-service gas by law.)


That's hundreds of thousands of jobs vaporized"there are now 168,000 gas stations in the U.S. The loss of those jobs was undoubtedly devastating for the individuals who had them, but the broader impact has been pretty positive for the rest of us.


As has happened throughout the history of automation, some jobs got destroyed by automated gas pumps, but new and often better jobs were created. Attendants went away, but to make the sophisticated pumps, companies like Wayne Fueling Systems in Texas, Bennett Pump Co. in Michigan and Gilbarco Veeder-Root in North Carolina hired software coders, engineers, sales staff and project managers. Station owners took their extra profits and turned their stations into mini-marts, which needed clerks, and built more gas stations, which needed more pumps from Wayne, Bennett or Gilbarco, and those companies then hired more people.


Consumers spent less money on gas because they weren't paying for someone else to pump it. That left them more money for iPhones or fish tacos ordered on Seamless, creating more new kinds of employment.

Ain't it cool ?

So the unemployment line that was going to roll out of your mouth, it would be better if you swallow it back, yeah we admit AI will snatch all possible jobs that is on earth right now;but this vast change

Will give birth to new jobs that you can't even imagine.


::Rises education rate::


A generation of gas station attendants got smoked, but the automation sent some clear signals that relying on such unskilled jobs isn't a great career plan. Those signals led to more parents encouraging their kids to go to college. In 1970, 14 percent of men held four-year college degrees, and 8 percent of women did. By 2015, that was up to 32 percent of men and women. So over time, we took hundreds of thousands of people out of the pool of those who might want a gas station attendant job and pushed them up, toward the professional job market, adding a lot of value to society and their wallets. While technology is partly responsible for years of middle-class wage stagnation, it has mostly hurt the less educated and helped the more educated.

Economists said clearly AI in strong level will help the generations in living rise, literacy rates improve, average life span lengthen and crime rates fall.

So what we need more ?


::Self-driving cars::

So as the days pass by our technology improves in jet speed, so speedy that one can't even imagine ; speedier than a hungry-for-pie  dean Winchester's Impala 67.

Well have you ever imagined how would have been our lives without cars ?

As Matt Ridley details in his book The Rational Optimist, in 1900,

To buy a Model T in 1908 took about 4,700 hours of work; today, the average person has to work about 1,000 hours to buy a car that's a thousand times better than a Model T.

So ain't you excited about self-driving cars which does even know when it's time to turn . So even if a drunkard is in the driver's seat, booze will never let loose lives.

Still the question remains

Can AI machines

Learn  by themselves?


Though it is described to be one of the few problems in AI science . The problem is that human brain gets better with experience and they can learn by themselves but a machine can only act the way it is programmed. So if any changes or betterment needed , we have to reprogram it. That is not a smart way to do cause the number of robotic creature or machine will grow faster than human population.

Yeah so many problems are they but hey

Ever heard ?

Where there is will , there is way.

And every problem has a solution.

Yeah we are talking about machine learning, Machine Learning is a current application of AI based around the idea that we should really just be able to give machines access to data and let them learn for themselves. "Machine learning" means that a system improves on a particular task, according to a quantifiable measure, as a function of time. Carnegie Mellon's Tom Mitchell, a professor of Computer Science and an expert in the subfield of machine learning, defines it as follows:

A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P, if its performance at tasks in T, as measure by P, improves with experience E. For a computer program, to "learn from experience E" is to learn from data: computer programs can't "experience" human language use directly, for instance, but written or communication can be digitized and datafied for them, as we've seen.Machine learnig, because it does involve improvement in performance over time"is obviously relevant to the broader vision of AI as creating machines with human-like (or greater than human-like) intelligence.
For example,in case of IBM's DeepBlue,while the computer lost its initial matches with Garry in 1997,the later matches all fell invariably in its favour, a clear-cut proof of how the computer learns from its opponent's moves,his shortcomings and also the verdicts of the previous games with him.

So here we get on the topic,


Two important breakthroughs led to the emergence of Machine Learning as the vehicle which is driving AI development forward with the speed it currently has.




One of these was the realization - credited to Arthur Samuel in 1959 - that rather than teaching computers everything they need to know about the world and how to carry out tasks, it might be possible to teach them to learn for themselves.


The second, more recently, was the emergence of the internet, and the huge increase in the amount of digital information being generated, stored, and made available for analysis.


Once these innovations were in place, engineers realized that rather than teaching computers and machines how to do everything, it would be far more efficient to code them to think like human beings, and then plug them into the internet to give them access to all of the information in the world.

nothing is impossible ;but it doesn't end here, we have more things to bring under spotlight that can prove it is possible for machines to think or learn by themselves

Do you remember this ?

"I think the brain is like a program in the mind, which is like a computer, so it's theoretically possible to copy the brain onto a computer and so provide a form of life after death."

                                        -Stephen Hawking

Yes we are talking about-

Neural Networks


The development of neural networks has been key to teaching computers to think and understand the world in the way we do, while retaining the innate advantages they hold over us such as speed, accuracy and lack of bias.


A Neural Network is a computer system designed to work by classifying information in the same way a human brain does. It can be taught to recognize, for example, images, and classify them according to elements they contain.

Strange na?

As strange as computer would have made sound in Mahabharata age .

But in near future be confident folks your generations are going to witness this all.

Lucky they are ain't them ?


From dawn to dusk technology is our Friend, beginning to end of our lives it helps us. Though the idea of robotic creatures ; making human slaves may be seeming like a nightmare to you but this robotic creatures can make you feel better being a doctor, raises mortality, can even cuddle with you like a pet, makes your stay less in hospital and most importantly reduces medical expenses.

Stephen hawking who was diagnosed with ALS in 1963 and doctors said he will only have about two years to live. But he lived 50 more years.

"Medicine has not been able to cure me, so I rely on technology to help me communicate and live."

Well now let us come to the medical field

::AI in medical field::

1)Reduced mortality rate

AI is being designed to assist doctors (not replace them) in the effort to reduce the mortality rate among patients awaiting care from specialists with the concept of Artificial intelligence is what gives computers the ability to learn, think, reason, and even understand human emotions.

2)The accuracy

In the case of AI, the neural network of the brain is successfully imitated, even including the ability to learn from past cases. Several studies on artificial neural networks showed that they are able to accurately diagnose some diseases including malignant melanoma, eye problems, and many forms of cancer by analyzing spectral information and diagnostic criteria.


3)Cuddling and caring for pets has always had a cathartic effect on our health, which is the basis for therapeutic animal robots that have been developed to help Alzheimer's patients.


3) Not affected by human-fatigue

A doctor in a week can hardly visit or diagnose 80 patient but think for a second the robotic creatures are not affected by tiredness. They can diagnose the much patient it needed , without being affected by monotony of doing the same work hours after hours.


4) Reduces expenses

Time for saving some money ; yes you heard me right .

assistants/programs could significantly reduce medical costs by eliminating office visits with online care.  Patients would be asked to submit data more frequently via online medical records, and the improved line of communication could result in less office visits. Further cost reductions could come from efficient AI diagnosing and screening of high-risk patients as well as by eliminating human errors in record keeping and diagnosis.

Can AI understand human emotions?

Yes I know the machines don't get tired, more disciplined than humans but; one thing that we are very proud of, I am sure you were thinking of making AI jealous saying that humans only have humanity.

But here is some researches and revelations that will make you spellbound.


For example, researchers have used facial analysis to spot struggling students in computer tutoring sessions. The AI was trained to recognise different levels of engagement and frustration, so that the system could know when the students were finding the work too easy or too difficult. This technology could be useful to improve the learning experience in online platforms.


AI has also been used to detect emotions based on the sound of our voice by a company called Beyond Verbal. They have produced software which analyses voice modulation and seeks specific patterns in the way people talk. The company claims to be able to correctly identify emotions with 80% accuracy. In the future, this type of technology might, for instance, help autistic individuals to identify emotions.


Sony is even trying to develop a robot able to form emotional bonds with people. There is not much information about how they intend to achieve that, or what exactly the robot will do. However, they mention that they seek to "integrate hardware and services to provide emotionally compelling experiences".

So it's not right to say it is impossible for machines to understand human emotions . We still have hopes.

In fact we some scientists are very optimistic about AI future.

AI in detecting criminals


Recently, researchers have developed an AI that is able to tell whether a person is a criminal just by looking at their facial features.(ie:lip curvature, eye inner corner distance, and the so-called nose-mouth angle.) The system was evaluated using a database of Chinese ID photos and the results are jaw dropping. The AI mistakenly categorised innocents as criminals in only around 6% of the cases, while it was able to successfully identify around 83% of the criminals. This leads to a staggering overall accuracy of almost 90%..


Ain't it cool ?

Well it does not end here we have more to go :)


::Artificially-intelligent cleaning system could save food manufacturers 100m a year::


13 Sep 2016

The University of Nottingham is developing an artificially-intelligent sensor system to clean food manufacturing equipment more precisely, which could save 100m a year for the UK industry alone.

This revolutionary AI-driven monitoring system could lead to greater production capacity and therefore cheaper food prices for consumers.

Food and drink production is the largest manufacturing sector in Britain and the highest industrial user of water at approximately 430 million litres a day.

What say people ain't it awesome to get foods healthier that too in low price?


::AI in maintaining greenery::


Okay so again it's turn for those robotic creatures which is never affected by human-fatigue. It is amazing way to put some robots in maintaining greenery and guarding forests .


:: Preservation of Animal, safety of Animals::

Yes talking about those poor animals who gets ruthlessly killed by hunters for their business in black market.

And we humans are often accept bribe and let them do whatever they wants. Who cares about the other living beings?

But this is not going to work any longer.

Our robots will do what is they are programmed to do that too with efficiency.

There AI-driven monitoring system could easily detect the hunters with weapons.


How about a robot police commissioner?

Yeah again you heard me right, as the robots are machines, they don't have a stomach to get hungry, they are not greedy to become a billionaire, they don't have family to maintain that's why they don't need money. They won't accept bribe. That means over smart criminals won't be spared after doing crime by offering them bribe.

::Time for some real justice::

Moreover the best part is the judgements without any bias. People can get real justice. As robots or AI computers doing judgements won't be fond of anybody so the decisions would not be biased.

::Reduce child labor ::

Yeah that shoe polishing, wine packing , cigarette wrapping, biscuits or sweet making, oiling machines, serving in restaurants kind of job will be overtaken by robots but chill some new jobs like engineer, programmer, planner, coder will arrive.

So instead of physical works kids will concentrate on studying and becoming one of them. Datas and books will be available on internet more than the current time and Studying on internet in wide level will not be as impossible as of touching your nose with tongue .

::Time for some real Fun

Spending more time with

Family and friends::

Yeah for those people who is always busy; Don't get to meet family and friends under pressure of work; it is going to be an awesome news for them. Your working hours will be lessened with this AI era.

::So when is that AI era coming::

Very soon, scientists has been very optimistic about the AI future. In fact some AI companies are in race to release the world's best AI machines. Some says it's a decade away but with the fast improvement of AI science promising it each and every day.

AI in narrow level is already making rounds .From SIRI to self-driving cars, artificial intelligence (AI) is progressing rapidly. While science fiction often portrays AI as robots with human-like characteristics, AI can encompass anything from Google's search algorithms to IBM's Watson to autonomous weapons.


Conclusion

So keeping in mind the whole discussion above AI can give us new jobs,rise education, reduce poverty and child labour, give us better life, cure us from deadly disease, reduce expenditure, understand human emotions, detect criminals, help us keeping our world green, give us healthier food with low price, learn by themselves, give us better judgement without being biased, protect us from enemies, protect animals and what not ? We can spend more time with family and friends in bonus. What do we need more ?

Edited by --Elara-- - 5 years ago
Posted: 5 years ago
Add the laws I must have forotten to add them!
add them where you think they seem fit!
Posted: 5 years ago
Rammy I will change some points I mean redraft it with my own words Kay ? I fear they will call it a palagarism. I pasted some information only. I will do it by eveningEmbarrassed
Posted: 5 years ago
@Mou-Alright!
@FlightoftheEagle-I added the laws too.
Posted: 5 years ago

Artificial Intelligence


"You never change things by fighting the existing reality.

To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete."

R. Buckminster Fuller


Intelligence can be defined as the ability to perceive information and store it as knowledge to be applied in an environment or context.

Over the course of time human intelligence has given  us various inventions to help mankind and make human life easier,including computers and thus arose a new form of intelligence which came to known as artificial intelligence or AI,which can be defined as intelligence possessed by machines which opens new horizons for mankind.


"Everything we love about civilization is a product of intelligence, so amplifying our human intelligence with artificial intelligence has the potential of helping civilization flourish like never before - as long as we manage to keep the technology beneficial."


Max Tegmark, President of the Future of Life Institute


Artificial intelligence and its origin

Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer sciences concerned with making computers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


While thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, the idea of actually trying to build a machine to perform useful reasoning may have begun with Ramon Llull (c. 1300 CE).


The field of AI research was founded at a conference at Dartmouth College in 1956. The attendees, including John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell, Arthur Samuel and Herbert Simon, became the leaders of AI research. They and their students wrote programs that were astonishing to most people: computers were winning at checkers, solving word problems in algebra, proving logical theorems and speaking English.

Artificial intelligence has many advantages compared to disadvantages.Some of the advantages are


  • With artificial intelligence, the chances of error are almost nil and greater precision and accuracy is achieved.
  • Intelligent robots can be programmed  to dig for fuels. They can be used for mining purposes. The intelligence of machines can be harnessed for exploring the depths of oceans.They can reach where it is impossible for humans to.
  • Robots can do certain laborious tasks. Painstaking activities, which have long been carried out by humans can be taken over by the robots.
  • Lacking the emotional side, robots can think logically and take the right decisions. Sentiments are associated with moods that affect human efficiency. This is not the case with machines with artificial intelligence.
  • Artificial intelligence can be utilized in carrying out repetitive and time-consuming tasks efficiently.
  • The greatest advantage of artificial intelligence is that machines do not require sleep or breaks, and are able to function without stopping. They can continuously perform the same task without getting bored or tired. When employed to carry out dangerous tasks, the risk to human health and safety is reduced.

The goal

The overall research goal of AI is to create technology that allows computers and machines to function in an intelligent manner. The general problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into sub-problems. These consist of particular traits or capabilities that researchers expect an intelligent system to display.

Capabilities currently classified as AI include :

1)successfully understanding human speech,

2)competing at a high level in strategic game systems (such as Chess and Go), 3)self-driving cars,

4)intelligent routing in Content Delivery Networks,and

5) interpreting complex data.


Can AI outperform human ?

Artificial intelligence today is properly known as narrow AI (or weak AI), in that it is designed to perform a narrow task (e.g. only facial recognition or only internet searches or only driving a car). However, the long-term goal of many researchers is to create general AI (AGI or strong AI). While narrow AI may outperform humans at whatever its specific task is, like playing chess or solving equations, AGI would outperform humans at nearly every cognitive task.


The present & Applications.

2015 was a big year. Artificial intelligence is moving into the commercial world. AI has been worked on for many years, largely in research. Various aspects of commercial use of AI, otherwise known as machine learning, is used for advertising and web searches and things like that. It wasn't until the last few years that AI could do things that people can't do. Several milestones were achieved in 2015 in particular that made it possible for us to use it in all kinds of areas.

There have been several recent advancements.

Yes, in an area of AI called "deep learning." The system basically learns by itself using a lot of data and computation. If you keep showing it pictures of an orange, it eventually figures out what an orange is"or a Chihuahua versus a Labrador versus a small pony. Amazing things happened in 2015: Microsoft (MSFT, -0.09%) and Google (GOOG, +0.51%) beat the best human at image recognition for the first time. Baidu beat humans in recognizing two languages. Microsoft and the China University of Technology and Science taught a computer network how to take an IQ test, and it scored better than a college postgraduate.

What are we seeing at the commercial level?

Google, Microsoft, and Facebook (FB, -0.07%) are using AI, whether it's the voice recognition on your phone or the items displayed in your news feed. We're using the same technology for autonomous cars because we can now achieve superhuman levels of perception. We can now recognize things better than a human. Of course there are all sorts of matters with regard to the dynamic range of our eyes"it's quite good, far superior than a camera. But if we add enough sensors like Lidar and radar and high-dynamic range cameras, in combination we will be able to surpass human perception.

Source:http://fortune.com/2016/03/22/artificial-intelligence-nvidia/

Examples

DeepBlue: A computer by IBM that was majorly designed as a chess playing one. It defeated the then world champion, Garry Kasparov in 1996 and also in 1997. In the former year, it played a 6-game match with him and could win only one (the first match) while Garry won 3 matches and 2 were draws. So it was heavily upgraded and in the following year, it won game 6, defeating Garry in the match.
Watson: The question-answering computer that won the popular American Quiz show, Jeopardy. Further highlighting the win is the fact that it enjoyed a clear win against the former winners of the game, Bard Retter and Jen Kennings in 2011. It had access to approximately 4 terabytes of data including all of Wikipedia's but it did not have connection to the internet during the game. Indisputably outperforming humans in the game, this artificially intelligent machine is a proof of the logical capabilities and the power 'Cognitive computing', a term closely knit with 'Machine Learning'.
Another fascinating thing about this computer is its capability to understand and interpret natural language, the language that we use rather than having to use computer language. This advantage has lead to IBM announcing a Watson API that we can include in our software based applications for 'intelligent' solution to the problems.

We might not be aware of it but we use artificial intelligence in our day to day life.It has so much influence on our daily life and will likely grow in the coming years.Few applications of artificial intelligence are: 

  • Virtual personal assistants: Siri, Google Now, and Cortana are all intelligent digital personal assistants on various platforms (iOS, Android, and Windows Mobile). In short, they help find useful information when you ask for it.

  • Video games:One of the instances of AI that most people are probably familiar with, video game AI has been used for a very long time.Games like Far Cry and Call of Duty also make significant use of AI, with enemies that can analyze their environments to find objects or actions that might be beneficial to their survival; they'll take cover, investigate sounds, use flanking maneuvers, and communicate with other AIs to increase their chances of victory. 
  • Smart cars:Self-driving cars are moving closer and closer to reality.The idea is that, eventually, the car will be able to "look" at the road ahead of it and make decisions based on what it sees, helping it learn in the process.
  • Fraud detection:Have you ever gotten an email or a letter asking you if you made a specific purchase on your credit card? Many banks send these types of communications if they think there's a chance that fraud may have been committed on your account, and want to make sure that you approve the purchase before sending money over to another company. Artificial intelligence is often the technology deployed to monitor for this type of fraud.
  • Customer support:Many websites now offer customers the opportunity to chat with a customer support representative while they're browsing"but not every site actually has a live person on the other end of the line. In many cases, you're talking to a rudimentary AI. Many of these chat support bots amount to little more than automated responders, but some of them are actually able to extract knowledge from the website and present it to customers when they ask for it.
  • Security:A single person monitoring a number of video cameras isn't a very secure system; people get bored easily, and keeping track of multiple monitors can be difficult even in the best of circumstances. Which is why training computers to monitor those cameras makes a great deal of sense.

The Laws of Robotics

The three laws of Robotics or the Asimov's Laws were put forth by science fiction author Isaac Asimov. They were first introduced in his 1942 short story "Runaround". The Three Laws, quoted as being from the "Handbook of Robotics, 56th Edition, 2058 A.D.", are:
  1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
  2. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
  3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Laws


The original laws have been altered and elaborated on by Asimov and other authors. Asimov himself made slight modifications to the first three in various books and short stories to further develop how robots would interact with humans and each other. In later fiction where robots had taken responsibility for government of whole planets and human civilizations, Asimov also added a fourth, or zeroth law, to precede the others:

0. A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.sense.

Argument:Benefits of Artificial Intelligence.


::Artificial intelligence in economy::

Have you ever imagined ?you wake up in the morning, as an automated hand gives you toothbrush, then a robotic Voice greets you good morning ?

Never imagined ?

It's okay don't be upset, you must have imagined a an automated gas pump.

Here is a small example of how AI would open up a new field for employment, so folks , don't be scared just relax.

Yeah talking about the same automated gas pump killed a lot of jobs over the years, but its biography might give you hope that the coming wave of automation driven by artificial intelligence (AI) will turn out better for almost all of us than a lot of people seem to think.


The first unrefined version of an automated gas-delivering robot appeared in 1964 at a station in Westminster, Colorado. John Roscoe who was owner of the Short Stop convenience store; bought an electric box what let a clerk inside activate any of the pumps outside. Self-serve pumps did not came as a fashion until the 1970, when some pump-making factory added automation that let customers pay at the pump .Over the next 30 years, stations across the nation recruited these task-specific robots and eliminated the attendants. By the 2000, the gas attendant job had all but disappeared.

-Two states, New Jersey and Oregon, protect full-service gas by law.


It caused thousands of people's unemployment, but there are now 168,000 gas stations in the U.S. Without any doubt The loss of those jobs was no less than the word  devastating' for the individuals who had them, but the broader improvement has been pretty positive for the rest of us.


This has happened throughout the history of automation, some jobs were taken over by automated gas pumps, but as a result better jobs were created. Attendants were expelled, but to make the sophisticated pumps, companies like Wayne Fueling Systems in Texas, Bennett Pump Co. in Michigan and Gilbarco Veeder-Root in North Carolina hired software coders, engineers, sales staff and project managers Station  owners who took their extra profits and the gas stations were turned into mini Marts. which shouted the recruitment for clerks, soon more more gas stations were built, which needed more pumps from Wayne, Bennett or Gilbarco, and those companies then recruited more people.


Consumers had to spend less  to less money on gas because they were no longer paying for someone else to pump it. That left them more money for extra savings for some shopping. Ain't it cool ?.


So the unemployment line that was going to roll out of your mouth, it would be better if you swallow it back, yeah we admit AI will snatch all possible jobs that is on earth right now;but this vast change

Will give birth to new jobs that you can't even imagine.


::Rises education rate::


There was an accidental smoke fire in the gas station for the unskilled workers.  Sooner the automation send a clear notice shouting for the need of skilled workers.

  Those signals led to more parents patrol their fiery kids to go to college. In 1970, 14 percent of men and 8 percent of women held four-year college degrees and By 2015 was high up to 32 percent of men and women. So over time, AI took hundreds of thousands of people out of the pool of those who are applying gas station attendant job and took them toward the professional job market, adding significant identity among people of the  society and their wallets. In many ways while technology responsible for years of middle-class wage stagnation, it has mostly hurt the less educated and helped the more educated.

Economists said clearly AI in strong level will help the generations in living rise, literacy rates improve, average life span lengthen and crime rates fall .So what we need more ?


.

::Self-driving cars::

So as the days pass by our technology improves in jet speed, so speedy that one can't even imagine ; speedier than a hungry-for-pie  dean Winchester's Impala 67.

Well have you ever imagined how would have been our lives without cars ?


As Matt Ridley details in his book The Rational Optimist, in 1900,to buy a Model T in 1908 one had to work 4,700 hours of work; today, the average person has to work about 1,000 hours to buy a car that's a thousand times better than a Model T.


So ain't you excited about self-driving cars which does even know when it's time to turn . So even if a drunkard is in the driver's seat, booze will never let loose lives.

Still the question remains

Can AI machines

Learn  by themselves?


Though it is described to be one of the few problems in AI science . The problem is that human brain gets better with experience and they can learn by themselves but a machine can only act the way it is programmed. So if any changes or betterment needed , we have to reprogram it. That is not a smart way to do cause the number of robotic creature or machine will grow faster than human population.

Yeah so many problems are they but hey

Ever heard ?

Where there is will , there is way.

And every problem has a solution.

Yeah we are talking about machine learning, Machine Learning is a current application of AI based around the idea that we should really just be able to give machines access to data and let them learn for themselves. "Machine learning" means that a system improves on a particular task, according to a quantifiable measure, as a function of time. Carnegie Mellon's Tom Mitchell, a professor of Computer Science and an expert in the subfield of machine learning, defines it as follows:

A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P, if its performance at tasks in T, as measure by P, improves with experience E. For a computer program, to "learn from experience E" is to learn from data: computer programs can't "experience" human language use directly, for instance, but written or communication can be digitized and datafied for them, as we've seen.Machine learnig, because it does involve improvement in performance over time"is obviously relevant to the broader vision of AI as creating machines with human-like (or greater than human-like) intelligence.
For example,in case of IBM's DeepBlue,while the computer lost its initial matches with Garry in 1997,the later matches all fell invariably in its favour, a clear-cut proof of how the computer learns from its opponent's moves,his shortcomings and also the verdicts of the previous games with him.

So here we get on the topic,





Two important developments led to the appearance of Machine Learning as the vehicle which is driving AI development forward with the speed it currently has.


One of these was an achievement that is credited to Arthur Samuel in 1959, "that rather than teaching computers everything they need to know about the world and how to carry out tasks, it might be possible to teach them to learn for themselves.


The second, more recently, the emergence of the internet, and the huge increase in the amount of digital data being generated, stored, and made available for analysis.


Once these innovations were in order, software engineers realized that rather than teaching computers and machines how to do everything, it would be far more accurate to code them to think like human beings, and then connect them into the internet giving access to all of the information in the world.

nothing is impossible ;but it doesn't end here, we have more things to bring under spotlight that can prove it is possible for machines to think or learn by themselves .


Do you remember this ?

"I think the brain is like a program in the mind, which is like a computer, so it's theoretically possible to copy the brain onto a computer and so provide a form of life after death."

                                        -Stephen Hawking

Yes we are talking about-

Neural Networks


The development of neural networks has been playing the key role in teaching computers to think and understand the world in the way we do, while retaining the innate advantages they hold over us such as speed, accuracy and lack of bias.


A Neural Network is a computer system designed to work by classifying information in the same way a human brain does. It can be taught to recognize, for example, images, and classify them according to elements they contain.

Strange na?

As strange as computer would have made sound in Mahabharata age .

But in near future be confident folks your generations are going to witness this all.

Lucky they are ain't them ?


From dawn to dusk technology is our Friend, beginning to end of our lives it helps us. Though the idea of robotic creatures ; making human slaves may be seeming like a nightmare to you but this robotic creatures can make you feel better being a doctor, raises mortality, can even cuddle with you like a pet, makes your stay less in hospital and most importantly reduces medical expenses.

Stephen hawking who was diagnosed with ALS in 1963 and doctors said he will only have about two years to live. But he lived 50 more years.

"Medicine has not been able to cure me, so I rely on technology to help me communicate and live."

Well now let us come to the medical field

::AI in medical field::

1)Reduced mortality rate

AI is being designed to assist doctors but not replace them in the earnest effort to reduce the mortality rate among patients. care from specialists with the ideology of Artificial intelligence; is what gives computers the ability to learn, think, reason, and even understand human emotions.

2)The accuracy

In the case of AI, the neural network of the brain is successfully imitated which includes the ability to learn from past cases as well. Several researches on artificial neural networks presents that they are capable of diagnosing some diseases which includes malignant melanoma, eye problems, and many forms of cancer by analyzing spectral information and diagnostic criteria that too with accuracy.


3)Cuddling and caring for pets has always had a cleansing effect on our health, with the help of therapeutic animal robots that have been developed to help Alzheimer's patients.


3) Not affected by human-fatigue

A doctor in a week can hardly visit or diagnose 80 patient but think for a second the robotic creatures are not affected by tiredness. They can diagnose the much patient it needed , without being affected by monotony of doing the same work hours after hours.


4) Reduces expenses

Time for saving some money ; yes you heard me right ,

assistants or programs could significantly reduce medical costs by reducing office visits with online care sites or applications.  Patients would be asked to submit infos more frequently via online medical records, and the improved line of communication will result in less to less office visits. Further expenditure reductions could come from efficient AT diagnosing and screening of high-risk patients as well as by eliminating human inconvenience while record keeping and diagnosis..

Can AI understand human emotions?

Yes I know the machines don't get tired, more disciplined than humans but; one thing that we are very proud of, I am sure you were thinking of making AI jealous saying that humans only have humanity.

But here is some researches and revelations that will make you spellbound.


 As example, researchers have applied facial expressions analysis to spot struggling students in computer teaching sessions. The AI was programmed to recognize various states of engagement and frustration, so that the computer system could find when the students were finding the work too easy or too tough. This technology could be useful to improve the learning experience in online platforms..


AI has also been applied as emotion-detector  based on the sound or tempo of our voice by a company named 'Beyond Verbal'. They have introduced software which deeply examines voice pitch and looks for specific patterns in the way people talk. The company claims that the software correctly identified emotions with 80%. In the future, this type of technology might, for example, help autism affected people to identify emotions.



Even Sony is  on race to design a robot that is able to form emotional chemistry with people. They did not give information about how they are going to get to that, or what exactly the robot will is intended to do. However, they mentioned that they look for "integrate hardware and services to provide emotionally compelling experiences..

So it's not right to say it is impossible for machines to understand human emotions . We still have hopes.

In fact we some scientists are very optimistic about AI future.

AI in detecting criminals


Recently, researchers have developed an AI that is able to tell whether a person is a criminal just by looking at their facial features.(ie: lip curvature, eye inner corner distance, and nose-mouth angle.) The system was formed using a database of Chinese ID photos and the results are outstanding. The AI mistakenly categorized innocents as criminals in only around 6% of the cases, while could  successfully identify around 83% of the criminals. This leads to a staggering overall accuracy of almost 90%.


Ain't it cool ?

Well it does not end here we have more to go :)


::AI cleaning system can result saving food manufacturers 100m a year::



The University of Nottingham is programming an artificially-intelligent sensor system that claims to be capable of cleaning food manufacturing equipment with more and more accuracy, which could secure 100m per year for the UK industry alone.

This involving AI-driven monitoring system could lead to greater production capacity and therefore cheaper food prices for consumers as well.

Food and drink production is the largest manufacturing sector in Britain and the highest industrial usage of water in approx is 430 million liters a day.

What say people ain't it awesome to get foods healthier that too in low price?


::AI in maintaining greenery::


Okay so again it's turn for those robotic creatures which is never affected by human-fatigue. It is amazing way to put some robots in maintaining greenery and guarding forests .


:: Preservation of Animal, safety of Animals::

Yes talking about those poor animals who gets ruthlessly killed by hunters for their business in black market.

And we humans are often accept bribe and let them do whatever they wants. Who cares about the other living beings?

But this is not going to work any longer.

Our robots will do what is they are programmed to do that too with efficiency.

There AI-driven monitoring system could easily detect the hunters with weapons.


How about a robot police commissioner?

Yeah again you heard me right, as the robots are machines, they don't have a stomach to get hungry, they are not greedy to become a billionaire, they don't have family to maintain that's why they don't need money. They won't accept bribe. That means over smart criminals won't be spared after doing crime by offering them bribe.

::Time for some real justice::

Moreover the best part is the judgments without any bias. People can get real justice. As robots or AI computers doing judgments won't be fond of anybody so the decisions would not be biased.

::Reduce child labor ::

Yeah that shoe polishing, wine packing , cigarette wrapping, biscuits or sweet making, oiling machines, serving in restaurants kind of job will be overtaken by robots but chill some new jobs like engineer, programmer, planner, coder will arrive.

So instead of physical works kids will concentrate on studying and becoming one of them. Data and books will be available on internet more than the current time and Studying on internet in wide level will not be as impossible as of touching your nose with tongue .

::Time for some real Fun

Spending more time with

Family and friends::

Yeah for those people who is always busy; Don't get to meet family and friends under pressure of work; it is going to be an awesome news for them. Your working hours will be lessened with this AI era.

::So when is that AI era coming::

Very soon, scientists has been very optimistic about the AI future. In fact some AI companies are in race to release the world's best AI machines. Some says it's a decade away but with the fast improvement of AI science promising it each and every day.

AI in narrow level is already making rounds .From SIRI to self-driving cars, artificial intelligence (AI) is progressing rapidly. While science fiction often showcases AI as robots with human-like characteristics; often portraying them as villain making humans slave but truth is not of that, rather they would be blessing to humans. AI can surround anything from Google's search algorithms to IBM's Watson to autonomous weapons.


Conclusion

So keeping in mind the whole discussion above AI can give us new jobs,rise education, reduce poverty and child labor, give us better life, cure us from deadly disease, reduce expenditure, understand human emotions, detect criminals, help us keeping our world green, give us healthier food with low price, learn by themselves, give us better judgement without being biased, protect us from enemies, protect animals and what not ? We can spend more time with family and friends in bonus. What do we need more ?


Edited by Sonatia - 5 years ago

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