\\History Department\\ 'O' Round 2 pg. 68 - Page 82

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Posted: 10 years ago
Muslim rulers in Deccan - South India

The Nizam Shahi Dynasty of Ahmadnagar
Nizam-ul-Mulk Bahri founded the Nizam Shahi dynasty. In 1490 AD his son Malik Ahmad defeated the army of Mahmud Bahmani and established himself independent. He assumed the title of Ahmad Nizam Shah and after him the dynasty was named Nizam Shahi dynasty. The next ruler was Burhan Nizam Shah was the next ruler who ruled for forty-five years. The state was later annexed in Mughal Empire in 1637 during the reign of Shah Jahan.
The Adil Shahi Shahi Dynasty of Bijapur
Yusuf Adil Khan, the governor of Bijapur who declared his independence in 1489, founded the Adil Shahi dynasty. Ismail Shah succeeded Adil shah but being a minor he was helped by Kamal Khan. He lost his life in a conspiracy and was succeeded by Ibrahim Adil Shah and ruled till 1557 AD. Ali Adil Shah succeeded Ibrahim Adil Shah. Following a policy of alliance he married Chand Bibi the daughter of Hussain NIzam Shah of Ahamadnagar. In the year 1564 - 1565 AD the four sultans allied at Talikota against the Vijayanagar Empire and defeated and annexed it. Adil shah was killed in 1579 AD. The throne was passed on to Ibrahim Adil Shah II who was a minor. His mother Chand Bibi looked after him while ministers ruled the kingdom. In 1595 AD the Ahmadnagar monarch was killed in a fight between Bijapur and Ahmednagar. In 1680 AD Aurangzeb annexed Bijapur. 
The Qutab Shahi Shahi Dynasty of Golkanda
The Qutab Shahi dynasty was a part of the Bahmani Empire that was called Golkonda. Sultan Quli Qutab Shah who was formerly the governor of the eastern province declared his independence in 1518 AD. And started the The Qutab Shahi dynasty. Qutab Shah met with his death in 1543 AD and his son Jamshed ruled till 1550 AD. The throne was held by Ibrahim till 1580 AD and later his son Muhammad Quli ruled till 1611 AD. Aurangzeb finally annexed the state in 1687 AD.
Bahamani Kingdom of Deccan
During the region of Muhammad-bin-Tughluq a series of revolts between the periods 1343 - 1351 AD helped in formation of numerous independent provinces. An officer of the Delhi Sultan named Hassan assumed the title of Bahman Shah and after occupation of Daulatbad in the Deccan proclaimed independence. He was also known as Alauddin I, the founder of the Bahmani dynasty.  Alauddin I was succeeded by Muhammad Shah I. He waged wars against the Hindu rulers of Vijayanagar and Warangal. With his policy of subjugation he subdued countless number of rival Hindu rulers, and accumulated vast treasures. A number of successful Sultans followed him till 1482 A.D. Shihab-ud-din Mahmud succeeded to the throne in 1482 AD and ruled till 1518 AD. During his reign the provincial governors declared their independence and Bahmani Kingdom started to break up. Kalim-ullah Shah  (1526 - 1538 AD) was the last ruler of Bahamani Kingdom.  
List of Bahmani Kingdom Rulers  
 Gulbarga as capital -75 years
1. Ala-ud-din Hasan Bahman Shah 1347 - 1358 AD

2. Muhammad I 1358 - 1375 AD

3. Ala-ud-din Mujahid Shah 1375 - 1378 AD

4. Daud Shah I 1378 - 1378 AD

5. Muhammad II 1378 - 1397 AD

6. Ghiyas-ud-din Tahmatan Shah 1397 - 1397 AD

7. Shams-ud-din Daud Shah II 1397 - 1397 AD

8. Taj-ud-din Firoz Shah 1397 - 1422 AD
 
Bidar as capital -116 years

1. Shihab-ud-din Ahmad Shah I 1422 - 1436 AD

2. Ala-ud-din Ahmad Shah II 1436 - 1458 AD

3. Ala-ud-din Humayun Shah 1458 - 1461 AD

4. Nizam-ud-din Ahmad Shah III 1461 - 1463 AD

5. Shams-ud-din Muhammad Shah III 1463 - 1482 AD

6. Shihab-ud-din Mahmud 1482 - 1518 AD

7. Ahmad Shah IV 1518 - 1520 AD

8. Ala-ud-din Shah 1520 - 1523 AD

9. Wai-ullah Shah 1523 - 1526 AD

10. Kalim-ullah Shah 1526 - 1538 AD
 
The Imad Shahi Dynasty of Berar
This consisted of the northern part of the Bahamani Kingdom. The Imad Shahi Dynasty of Berar lasted for four generations till 1574 AD.
The Barid Shahi Dynasty of Bidar
The Barid Shahi Sultans governed the Barid Shahi dynasty. Qasim Barid the minister of Mahmud Shah Bahamani established it in 1492 AD. This dynasty lasted till 1619 AD when Bijapur annexed it.
Policy of Muslim rulers in India - The general policy of most of the rulers during the 700 years of Muslim occupation of India was to systematically replace the fabric of Hindu society and culture with a Muslim culture. They tried to destroy Indian religions language, places of knowledge (universities e.g Nalanda were totally destroyed by Muslims). They destroyed and desecrated places of thousands of temples including Somnath, Mathura, Benaras, Ayodhaya, Kannauj, Thaneswar and in other places. There was wholesale slaughter of the monks and priests and innocent Hindus with the aim to wipe out the intellectual bedrock of the people they overran.
The Muslims could not subjugate India with ease and were never able to rule it entirely. There was a valiant and ceaseless struggle for independence by Hindus to deliver India from Muslim tyranny. The Rajputs, Jats, Marathas and Sikhs led this struggle in North India. In the South this struggle was embodied in the Vijayanagar Empire. This struggle culminated when the Marathas ended the Muslim domination of India.
Posted: 10 years ago
@ Khushi , Ankita : Thanks for detailed infoSmile
Posted: 10 years ago
@Khushi, Loved the pic.s of the Scindias, and also the summary of the vaious civilisations from Indian History! Star

@ Anu, Great to know about the history of Rampur! Star

@ Radhika, Nice posts Clap. 'Timeline of vaious dynasties of Indian History' are also there in page 48 and 49.
Posted: 10 years ago

Princely State of Pudukkottai


 

Flag of the Princely State of Pudukkottai

Kingdom until 1823.  Princely state under the paramountcy of the British Raj (1823–1950)

Pudukkottai (Tamil: ????????????) is a town and a municipality in Pudukkottai district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Pudukkottai District was carved out of Tiruchirappalli and Thanjavur districts in January 1974. It is the administrative headquarters of Pudukkottai District.

The last Thondaiman raja of Pudukkottai acceded to newly-independent India in 1948, and the state became a division of Tiruchirappalli District of Madras State. The state was reorganised twice in the succeeding decade, taking its present form in 1956; it was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. On 14 January 1974, the present Pudukkottai District was formed from parts of Tiruchirappalli and Thanjavur districts.

 The world's oldest and longest living micronation was probably the Indian princely state of Pudukkottai. From the 6th to the 14th century AD, Pudukkottai was successively ruled by the Pallavas, the Cholas, and the Pandyas. When the Pandya kingdom was conquered by Malik Kafur, Pudukkottai came under the rule of Muslim sultans, who held power for about 50 years before being vanquished by the Vijayanagar kings. When the Vijayanagar kingdom disintegrated, Raghunatha Kilavan wrested the country from them in 1680, and appointed Raghunatha Tondaiman, his brother-in-law, as viceroy. Pudukkottai thus came under the rule of the Madurai Nayak Dynasty. After the death of Raghunatha Kilavan, Raghunatha Tondaiman became the ruler of Pudukottai. Thus the Thondaiman Dynasty took root and flourished. The princely state of Pudukottai was created by Raghunatha (Raya) Tondaiman. In later centuries the Thondaiman rulers, while nominally being feudatories of the Ramnad state, often pursued an independent foreign policy (just like any micronation would do today), a trend common in all parts of India at that time. The kingdom initially did not have fixed boundaries, and was called "Thondaiman country" (after the Thondaiman rulers) until the end of 18th century. The kingdom started to have fixed boundaries in the early 19th century. It extended for 52 miles from east to west and 41 miles from north to south, and encompassed an area of 1,178 square miles. The Thondaimans provided military aid to the British and the Nawabs of Arcot in the 1752 siege of Tiruchirapally, against Haidar Ali and Tippu Sultan, and finally against the Palaiyakkarars. This act by the Thondaiman rulers spared the kingdom from being assigned zamindari status, and Pudukottai was instead assigned as a Princely State (also called Native or Indian State). Marthanda Bhairava Tondaiman declared, in 1888, that Pudukkottai had become an independent kingdom, and in 1889 issued an Amman cash coin (Amman kasu). That was the only coin ever issued by the Kingdom of Pudukkottai. Pudukkottai remained the only princely kingdom to maintain its independence in the whole of Tamil Nadu. The kingdom eventually acceded to the independent Dominion of India in August 1947, and merged with the Madras state in the following year. Rajagopala Tondaiman, ninth and last ruler of the princely state of Pudukkottai, died in 1997 at the age of 75.

List of Thondaiman Kings

  • Raghunatha Raya Tondaiman (1686–1730)
  • Vijaya Raghunatha Raya Tondaiman (1730–1769)
  • Raya Raghunatha Tondaiman (1769 – Dec 1789)
  • Vijaya Raghunatha Tondaiman (Dec 1789 – 1 February 1807)
  • Vijaya Raghunatha Raya Tondaiman (1 February 1807 – June 1825)
  • Raghunatha Tondaiman (June 1825 – 13 July 1839)
  • Ramachandra Tondaiman (13 July 1839 – 15 April 1886)
  • Marthanda Bhairava Tondaiman (15 April 1886 – 28 May 1928)
  • Rajagopala Tondaiman (28 October 1928 – 4 March 1948)
Augustus Coin found in the Pudukottai Hoard

 


Todiman Raja in his Durbar, Pudukkottai 1858

Posted: 10 years ago
WOW...Khushi and Anu...thanks for gr8 info...you guys are awesomeThumbs Up
Posted: 10 years ago
@debi, bhargavi : its my pleasure friendzWinkBig smile...Thanks for complement 
Posted: 10 years ago
pleasure debipriya 

anu , nice info
Posted: 10 years ago
nice n great post anu n khusi
thnx debipriya, anu khusi n bhargavi

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